We go on a diet in order to lose weight. Diet refers to the restriction of harmful foods such as sugar, deep-fried foods, soda, and all-purpose flour. Diet can also be defined as portion control.
One should choose a diet that is compatible with their lifestyle and that can be followed without interruptions.
A fad diet is a diet that is fashionable for a brief period of time, akin to fashion fads. In general, fad diets promise a variety of short-term changes that need little to no effort.
Why are they referred to as fad diets?
Because most people pick them up and drop them. We indicated that the majority of them are unsustainable in the long run. When a fad diet is followed for an extended period of time, it becomes harmful. Many fad diets exclude key food categories, nutrients, fiber, carbs, vitamins, and minerals. That’s not a good sign. When this is done over an extended period of time, you run the danger of being unwell in the long run. This is why fad diets are not intended to be used for an extended length of time.
South Beach Diet
It is one of the most popular diets advocated by celebrities in high-profile publications. Dr. Agatston, a cardiologist, developed it, and it is based on a reduced carbohydrate consumption with a greater protein and healthy fat substitute.
The diet promises to allow its adherents to consume carbohydrates ( in extreme moderation)
Protein (as long as it’s lean, with no bad fats) and good fats (no, it doesn’t imply pizza)
The South Beach Diet differs from other low carbohydrate diets in that it is not as low in carbohydrates as some of the other more restrictive choices.
Every day, you should consume around 140g of carbohydrates. This diet is divided into phases, so you will consume fewer carbohydrates at first and more as you go to the maintenance phase.
In phase 1, you will have very little carbohydrates and will not be permitted to consume juice or alcohol.
You can consume lean protein such as chicken or soy products.
You should also consume lots of fiber-rich veggies, low-fat dairy, and nuts, seeds, and avocados. This phase lasts two weeks and is when you will observe significant weight reduction.
Phase 2: Things get a bit easier in phase two since you may now have crabs, whole-grain bread and pasta, brown rice, and you should continue to consume lots of fruits and vegetables.
Phase 3 Anything in moderation, as long as you don’t go overboard! This stage is still ongoing.
The paleo diet is yet another well-known fad diet, and it is based on prehistoric eating practices, commonly known as the Stone Age diet. or the caveman way of life.
This diet is for you if you’ve ever desired to be a caveman or cavewoman. This is not a diet to be taken lightly because it is quite restricted and, as a result, not particularly maintainable in the long run.
The diet’s primary focus is on what could be obtained from the land at the time.
The paleo diet is great since there are no stages to follow, no counting, and no zone control; it’s just a list of items you can eat and a list of foods you can’t. As a result, the paleo diet is relatively easy.
Basically, you should eat the following
- Meats that are totally lean, grass-fed or wild game
- Fish including salmon, and mackerel
- Olive oil
You should avoid the following
- Any type of grain, like wheat, barley, oats
- Legumes of any type
- Dairy product
- Processed food
- Refined Sugar
For that reason, many assume the paleo diet is not the best choice in the long term.
Dr. Barbara Rolls created it, and it focuses on the density of meals. If you can focus on this, limiting the number of calories you eat and eating foods that keep you satiated for longer, you’ll not only create the calorie deficit required for weight reduction, but you’ll also be aiming for a better lifestyle overall.
There are no items that are forbidden in the Volumetric diet, but knowing which foods have a low density means you know what you can eat more of. You can make some truly wonderful and substantial dinners at home with the authorized items.
Low-Density foods include
- Fresh Vegetables
- Fresh Fruits
- Low-fat dairy products
- Whole grains
- Legumes, especially beans
- Lean meats
You don’t need to count much for this diet, but you should keep an eye on the calorie intake you are consuming for the first few weeks until you begin to understand the amounts in various foods.
Raw food diet
This is not a new phenomenon; in fact, it has existed since the 1800s. You may hear this diet referred to as raw veganism or raw foodism, but it is the same thing.
You can’t cook anything, but you can bend, juice, soak, sprout, or dehydrate it. According to the general definition, this diet does not contain any meat and instead focuses on items found on plants and trees, such as seeds, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.
According to studies, raw food is not any healthier than cooked food. Yes, cooking can help to lower the quantity in some cases. Cooking also kills microorganisms, which is not the case when the food is raw.
Most individuals will find this diet difficult to adhere to, but it will yield significant weight reduction benefits in the short term.
Foods you can eat
- Fruits & vegetables
- Nuts & seeds
- Legumes – should be soaked and sprouted first
- Dried fruits
- Dried Meats
- Raw nut butter
- Kinds of milk derived from Nuts
- Cold-pressed coconut oil
Foods you should avoid
- Anything Cooked, including Meats, grains, vegetables
- Anything Baked
- Anything roasted, like seeds or nuts
- Oils that are refined
- Salt & Sugar
- Potato Products
- Anything which is processed
The macrobiotic diet is entirely natural, which means that nothing artificial or processed enters the body. Furthermore, because no meat or dairy items are consumed, this diet might be labeled as vegan.
This diet comprises mostly of naturally occurring foods such as barley, oats, buckwheat, and brown rice, as well as any organically cultivated fruits and vegetables.
Soups that can be created from vegetables
- Organic meat but small amounts only
- Organic Fish but small amounts only
This is hardly a diet that anyone would desire to follow for pleasure. So let’s put it that way. The diet limits your daily calorie intake to 600 calories.
This diet claims to help you lose up to 22 pounds in 13 days. Is it removable? No, as soon as you stop dieting, the weight will most certainly return, and much of what you are losing is actually water.
Because calorie limitation involves nutritional restriction, it is recommended that you take vitamin supplements during this period. So you don’t miss out on anything important.
You’ll be eating high-protein, low-fat meals on this plan. In addition, you must consume at least 2 liters of water every day.
You might be wondering how you are supposed to get any nutrition at all in just 600 calories and yes it is a challenge. A simple daily meal plan could look something like this
Break Fast – A cup of coffee, you are allowed one cube of sugar
Lunch – Two Hard-boiled eggs, one tomato, and cooked spinach around 400 gm
Dinner- Steak 200gm, with green salad and dressing made with lemon and oil.
All these fad diets are not designed to be prolonged. Of course, most diets promise great results, but what you are actually seeing on the scales is a loss of water at least at first. If you want to go down the fad diet route is a short-term fix, the best idea is to find a diet that you can follow easily, which isn’t going to confuse you, and one which you can make plenty of delicious meals from it according to your taste.
We all know that honey comes from honey bees. Most of the flies and worms cause diseases to us but there are very few that are very beneficial to us. Mainly bees and silkworms belong to this category. Everyone knows that bees are true friends.
Honey made from bees contains glucose and fructose. That is why honey is very beneficial for the body. Honey is rich in complex substances that are proteinaceous in nature. They have the ability to accelerate millions of times the chemical reactions that take place in the body.
The reason is that honey is in the first place among the foods that are high in Hyroxidate and lipase.
A few years ago honey was compared to sugar. Everyone knows that sugar is just carbohydrates that give the body only calories. Honey contains over 80 different substances that the body needs to grow and function. If the honeycomb is analyzed and examined, it is understood that it contains nutrients that are essential for the body and healing. More than half (up to 70%) of the energy needed by humans comes from the source of sugar in food.
Nutrients in Honey
Honey contains all the proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals needed for every living cell to grow. It may also have fungal and antimicrobial properties. Another characteristic of honey is its strong alkalinity, it is one of the very few foods created by nature.
Honey also contains salts of Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron, Chloric, Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Iodine.
Bee honey contains B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, Vitamin C, E, K, and carotene vitamins. As well as acetylcholine, hormones, antibiotics, phytonutrients as well as valuable substances for the body.
Up to 1.5 mg of B2 vitamin (riboflavin), up to 0.1 mg of vitamin B1 Aneurin, up to 2 mg of vitamin B (pantothenic acid), up to 1 mg of Vitamin B3 nicotinic acid, Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) up to 5 mg, Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 30 to 54 mg.
Their sizes are very small. However, these vitamins combine with other essential nutrients in honey. Due to all these, it is good for an easy digestion process.
Honey as preservative
People know that bee nectar does not spoil if stored properly for hundreds of years even thousands of years. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks used honey to preserve the bodies of the dead,
Unlike other foods, honey does not spoil if it is stored properly.
Adding Honey to our food
Milk has a special place in the diet of human beings. Moreover, ‘honey in milk’ plays an important role as food for people of all ages.
Giving honey to children instead of sugar in their diet can help keep them healthy. Experienced physicians and scientists have found that the sugar and bacteria left in the oral cavity can be broken down through honey. Unlike sugar, honey has antibiotic properties.
Instead of sugar, honey can be added to mousse (a dish made with condensed milk cream) to enhance the taste and speed up digestion.
Honey can also be added to Macaroni, semolina, rice, Rava, wheat, oatmeal, pearl barley, buckwheat, millet, etc., tastes good, and can be easily digested.
Benefits of Honey
Not only for the sick but also for the healthy persons it is better to combine honey with cottage cheese, various jams, apples, etc. It is also good for health. Honey water soothes and energizes the body at night.
Honey cleanses the body without germs. In addition, it contains fluoride. It also used to reduce the decay of teeth.
Honey for children
According to the Food Education Rhythm of the Academy of Medical Sciences in the Soviet Union, children should eat 60 grams of sugar and 10 grams of sweet a day. It is recommended to fill a portion of sugar (60 grams) with honey (30 grams). Doing so will greatly benefit the growing children. It is better to take honey instead of sugar not only for children but also for adults.
Role of Honey in curing diseases
- Honey is indicated for non-acidic gonorrhea, intestinal diseases, chronic colitis, cholera, gallbladder disease, hepatitis, and diarrhea and also for those who are suffering from high blood pressure.
- Honey can also be given for those suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system, and for those who are suffering from tuberculosis to boost the body’s immune system.
- A teaspoon of honey (100 calories) mixed with a glass of milk (124 calories) not only tastes well but also very nutritious and makes us strong.
- Honey is good for wounds and sores in the mouth. Honey and wheat flour can be applied to the wound. In the olden days, honey is also used in ointments to heal wounds.
- For cold, honey should be taken in combination with hot milk (a large spoonful of honey per glass of milk). You can also take honey with lemon.
- Drinking honey water relieves sneezing and reduces cough.
- Hazelnuts mixed with honey are good for chronic coughs, hair loss and strengthens the body. It also increases the percentage of hemoglobin in the blood. Honey decreases the mucus in patients.
- Honey relaxes the veins and improves blood circulation in the heart vessels.
- Taking an average of 70 grams for 45 days will improve the general health condition of patients suffering from heart disease; it improves heart health and increases the activity of blood vessels.
- Patients with many gastrointestinal diseases can use honey as a medicine and food for gastric ulcers. Dissolve honey in lukewarm water and drink it. Honey dissolved in hot water dilutes the stomach mucus and reduces acidity.
- After some surgeries especially jaw, a special diet has to be taken. If chewing is not possible and the patient has difficulty swallowing, taking honey at this time not only gives you enough energy but also honey helps in wound healing.
Honey for Skin
- Nowadays with the pollution around us, the main goal is to keep the skin healthy and beautiful. The skin protects the body from the harmful substances in the environment that surround us. Honey has a special place among all the medicines that give to the skin.
- Honey is a wonderful cosmetic substance. It easily penetrates the skin and supplies glucose. Also, it has the property of protecting the skin from bacteria. ‘Honey bandages’ are used to tighten the skin, and delicate. This is why it is used in cosmetics.
- A mixture of honey, turmeric, and milk cream mixed in equal parts. Applying this on your face and wipe it off after 15 minutes. This can do wonders on your skin,
- Mix pure honey (if it is strongly crystalline it should be heated slightly) with 25 g of spirit, and water, to a bit of olive oil. Rinse the face with clean hot water, and then apply the mixture on the face in a thin layer with cotton wool. Put a cotton towel on top and close. Leave it for 20 minutes and then wash your face with normal water.
- A teaspoon of honey, with the same amount of glycerine, one egg yolk, all should be well combined. Apply this mixture on the face to reduce acne and dark spots.
- Honey bandages, lotions, creams, and ointments make the skin delicate and wrinkle-free. If the skin is very dry, apply the following bandage. Rinse your face with lukewarm water.
- Add 50 g of pure honey, 30 g of wheat flour and 30 g of water apply it all over the face and cover it with a cotton towel for 20-25 minutes. Then wash the face with plain water.
On average, a man eliminates daily about 20 to 30gms of minerals salts. Bones and teeth are made up of mainly calcium, magnesium and phosphorous, and iron is an important constituent of blood. Iodine is necessary for the proper formation of hormone thyroxin.
The bones and teeth are made up of calcium salts and hence calcium is mainly required as a building material for strong bones and teeth. Without calcium the contraction of the heart would not be proper, the muscles would not contract properly to make the limbs move, and the blood would not clot.
Calcium for Children and Lactating Mothers
Children need relatively more calcium and other minerals than adults do to meet the needs of the growing bones. Pregnant and nursing mothers also require higher amounts of calcium. A healthy breastfed baby of three months contains a great deal of calcium in its bones, all of which has been drawn from its mother’s blood and milk.
If the mother’s diet during this period is deficient in calcium, then the calcium present in her bones would be depleted, and her health, and probably that of the child also, will suffer. Since there is a huge drain of calcium during pregnancy and lactation, adequate supply of this mineral is essential.
A daily intake of about 0.4 to 0.6gm of calcium by an adult. In the case of growing children, pregnant and lactating women suggested a daily allowance of 1.0 gm.
Good Source of Calcium
- Calcium is rich in milk including skimmed milk, buttermilk, cheese and green leafy vegetables.
- Among the leafy vegetables, amaranth, fenugreek and drumstick leaves are particularly rich in calcium.
- Among the root vegetables, tapioca is a good source.
- Most cereals contain some amounts of this element and the millet Ragi is a particularly rich source of calcium.
- Rice is very deficient in calcium, and therefore a deficiency of calcium is one of the most important defects of the rice eater’s diet.
Next in importance to calcium is phosphorus the utilization of calcium in the body is closely related to phosphorus, because most of the calcium is deposited in the body either in the bones or teeth as calcium.
Phosphorus also plays an essential role in the absorption of carbohydrates and fats.
Cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are all rich in phosphorus. However, deficiency of phosphorus is rarely encountered in Indian diets, because their diets are predominantly based on cereals.
A well – balanced diet for growing child or for an adult should contain sufficient amount of iron to meet the iron requirements of the body and to allow for possible regional and seasonal variations in the iron content of foods.
The Nutrition Expert Group of the Indian Council of Medical Research considered the various aspects relating to the availability and utilization of food iron and recommended an allowance of 20 to 30 mg of iron in a balanced diet for an adult.
Good sources of Iron
- Green leafy vegetables and inclusion of about 50gms of this class of foods in the diet meet a considerable portion of the iron requirement.
- Cereal grains, millets, especially bajra and ragi are good sources of iron.
- Dried fruits such as dates, raisins, and apricots are rich in iron.
For the prevention of anaemia (a condition in which the haemoglobin content of blood is low), a diet rich in iron would be valuable. Most of the pregnant women are particularly prone to suffer from anaemia.
Deficiency of Iodine causes goitre, a disease characterized by swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck, is prevalent in many parts of the world. The daily requirement of iodine is about 100 to 150µg.
The iodine required by the body obtained mainly through the drinking water. If there is a low iodine content in drinking water, it would be the main reason for iodine deficiency.
To improve the Intake of iodine by persons include the fortification of common salt with Iodine.
Besides calcium, phosphorus and iron, a large number of other elements are also required for the normal well – being of man.
Apart from foodstuffs drinking water also provides some of the important elements such as iodine and fluorine, and possibly other elements also. Let’s have a look at the below briefly summarized elements.
Sodium and potassium
They are important constituents of fluids present outside and within the cells. A proper concentration of these elements in the body fluids is necessary to keep the cells in proper shape.
Sweat contains considerable amounts of sodium chloride. To make good loss through the sweat and also to compensate the amount lost in the urine. Including Common salt in the diet is a good source of sodium and chloride.
Normally about 10 to 15gms of sodium chloride through the salt added to the diet. However, people with high blood pressure should follow low sodium diets.
Most of the vegetable foods contain the potassium element in adequate amounts.
Zinc is an integral part of the important enzymes. Some cases of dwarfism and hypogonadism (improper development of sex characteristics) seen in male teenagers due to this deficiency.
In some areas in Andhra Pradesh and Punjab, the amount of fluoride in drinking water is somewhat high. Continued consumption of such water leads to a disease known as fluorosis affecting teeth and bones.
Along with Vitamins, minerals are also essential to our body
Pulses have been very important in the diet of human beings since they settled in one place and started farming. In our dishes, we use a wide variety of pulses, such as
- Green Gram
- Red Gram
- Bengal Gram
- Black Gram
- Red Lentil
Although there are different cooking methods in different parts of the world, pulses are dutifully used in all parts of the eastern countries.
Pulses are high in mineral salts such as calcium and iron. If we take a small number of pulses a day, we can get some of the essential salts needed for our body. Calcium is a nutrient that is important for all of us, especially for bones. Adequate iron is needed in moderation for blood circulation. For those who want to keep their nerves and skin healthy adequate amounts of pulses should be consumed. Therefore those who consume more rice in their diet should consume pulses in moderation.
In addition to cereals, legumes contain 20 to 25% more protein. Protein in Legumes is also higher than protein in fish, eggs, and meat. Protein in legumes contains a wide variety of amino acids. The nutritional value of meat products is good if it contains the right type of amino acids.
Cereals are low in the amino acid lysine. This is why the protein value of whole grains is so low. But this lysine amino acid is high in legumes.
There are so many varieties of legumes which we can use in our daily meals or as snacks, which are packed full of nutrients. But the consumption should be in the proper form.
Know the Nutritive Value of Pulses & Legumes
Convenient Consumption of Pulse and legumes in the diet
If we take raw pulse/Legumes i.e., uncooked, it contains ingredients that are not easily digested. Green Gram is easily digested compared with any other pulses.
Some of the major combinations of meals with a pack of Nutrients are
- We can prepare Kichidi with Raw Rice along with Pulses (Red Lentil).
- Can also prepare Pongal with Raw Rice along with Pulses (Green Gram Dal).
- One of the most popular combinations (Jeera Rice) along with Legumes (Rajma).
- Poori with Chole Masala (Chickpeas).
In the above dishes, we are taking the combination of Carbohydrates and proteins. As rice and wheat are fully loaded with Carbs whereas pulses and legumes are fully loaded with Proteins and Minerals. So make sure you have a perfect meal full of nutrients.
Omega 3 fatty acids are also called essential fatty acids because they cannot be prepared by the body. So we have to take through our diet. Omega 3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fats come in two major forms:
Omega 6 fatty acids are predominant in vegetable oils, whereas, Omega 3 fatty acids and predominant in fish and marine oils.
More than 30 years of research leaves no doubt that vegetable oils are good at battling cholesterol. But recent tests show that fish oils are two to five times more potent in lowering blood cholesterol and also act as “blood thinner”.
The 3 major Omega fatty acids are
Alpha Linolenic Acid(ALA)
EPA and DHA are found in seafood whereas; ALA is available in Plant-based food.
Major benefits of Omega 3s
Current research indicates that omega-3s may also help as follows
- Lowers blood pressure
- Ease common skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis:
- Relieve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis:
- Aid brain development.
- Omega-3s sweep cholesterol out of the blood.
- Omega 3s force down the levels of low and very-low-density lipoproteins (LDL) that carry cholesterol and particularly triglycerides into body tissues and may push up the level of High-density lipoproteins(HDL) that are thought to carry cholesterol away.
Why fish is a major Source of DHA & EPA?
- Fish is recognized as a major source of a class of fats (omega-3s) that have far-ranging effects on metabolism.
- Researches are finding that fish oils lower the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, the blood fats associated with heart diseases. They help prevent blood clots, a major cause of heart attacks.
- Fish flesh is rich in B vitamins, especially niacin and B-6. These vitamins are crucial to protein metabolism and may be important in preventing skin and nervous system disorders.
- Fish oils somehow change the delicate balance of blood components called lipoproteins that shuttle cholesterol around the body.
- Moreover fish supplies minerals-Phosphorous, Potassium, iron, iodine, and cancer-fighting selenium. Shellfish such as oysters are among nature’s richest sources of Zinc, important in keeping your immune system turned up.
- Oysters, prawns, clams and unboned, tinned fish such as sardines and mackerel are high in bone-building calcium.
- Most dieters know that seafood is a great source of low-calorie protein.
- Most seafood is low in cholesterol. Even the worst offenders- prawns, crab, and lobster contain less cholesterol per egg does.
Things to keep in mind while buying seafood
- While increasing seafood intake is a good idea, keep in mind that shellfish from polluted waters may contain toxins as well as organisms that can cause cholera, gastroenteritis, and hepatitis. Deepwater ocean fish are usually safe, however freshwater fish rise in unpolluted waters.
- Keep all seafood chilled to prevent bacterial growth, and eat it as soon as possible after it is bought. Raw seafood may carry tapeworms, roundworms, and other parasites. So eat your seafood well cooked.
Other plant-based foods that are rich in ALA Omega 3 Fatty acids
- They are one of the rich sources of Omega 3 fatty acids
- 2 tablespoons of chia seeds contain 5gms of Omega 3 fatty acids, 3gms of protein, 7gm of fiber, and 6gms of Fat.
- Adding chia seeds to your refreshing drinks or in oatmeal makes your meal more delicious.
- Flax seeds are one of the best plant-based proteins and also rich in omega 3 fatty acids available for Vegetarians in the market.
- It contains 7gms of ALA per 1 tbsp
- They are rich in Alpha-Linolenic acid which also lowers the risk of stroke.
- It aids in weight management and also helps to reduce the risk of Heart Failure.
- Adding them into your smoothies, and dressing them on salads are the two best ways to take Flaxseeds on daily basis.
- It is the only super nut among all the nuts, with a high amount of ALA.
- 5 whole walnuts have 3gms of protein, 4gms of ALA Omega fatty acids, and 1gm of fiber.
- Adding these nuts to your oatmeal enhance its taste or you can have these nuts in a snack bar
These are rich creamy, flavourful, Avocados are rich in Omega 3 Fatty acids in the form of high ALA, which is good fat.
It helps to reduce cholesterol and lowers the risk of heart diseases.
What are VITAMINS?
The word Vitamin was coined in 1912 after the Latin word ‘Vit‘ which means life. In fact, Vitamins are essential for the functioning of the body, found in many food substances. They are of many kinds and each vitamin has a separate role in keeping our body healthy. Let’s discuss the 6 most important Vitamins. They are A, B, C, D E, and K.
Why are vitamins essential for us?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, and salts form an essential part of our food. Vitamins also belong to the same category. Lack of Vitamins can cause many diseases. Some complications like indigestion, weakening of eyesight, general weakness, tiredness, dryness of skin, inflammation of gums, weakening of bones, etc., appear in the body due to deficiency of Vitamins.
Vitamin A is necessary to enable clear vision in dim light.
Redness and inflammation of the eye and gradual loss of vision may follow.
The central portion of the eye (cornea) may lose its transparency and become opaque and soft, and if not treated in time may lead to total blindness.
Good Sources of Vitamin A
- It is present in some animal foods like butter and ghee, whole milk, curds, egg yolk, liver, etc.
- The liver oils of certain fish like cod, halibut, and shark. Fish is a natural source of vitamin A.
- Since most of the vitamin A is met from leafy vegetables such as spinach, amaranth leaves, coriander leaves, drumstick leaves, curry leaves, mint, radish leaves, etc.,
- Riped fruits such as mangoes, papaya, and tomatoes are rich in carotene.
- Among other vegetables, carrots and yellow pumpkin are good sources. It can be said that in general the greener the leafy vegetable, the higher would be the carotene content, and consequently, the outer dark green leaves of cabbage are richer in carotene.
- Who cannot properly digest the fibrous leafy vegetables; it is advisable to take from foods such as butter, liver, egg, in which it is present. Vitamin A can also be given in the form of cod or shark liver oil.
- Animal foods rich in vitamin A are more expensive, and therefore the easiest and cheapest way of ensuring the sufficiency of vitamin A is to increase the intake of green leafy vegetables. About 50gm of the common leafy vegetables a day will furnish adequate amounts of this vitamin for adults as well as for children.
- Cow ghee is richer in vitamin A than buffalo ghee. The yellow color of cow ghee is due to the presence of carotene Generally Yellow color fruits and vegetables are the rich source of this Vitamin.
- It may be mentioned that the daily requirements of an adult are in the neighborhood of 750 Mg of vitamin A derived either from foods of animal or of vegetable origin. The requirements are greater in pregnancy and lactation and during growth.
There are many vitamins grouped under B – vitamins, but only those whose importance in human nutrition has been well established will be discussed below.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
It is an important member of the B group of vitamins.
Prolonged deficiency of thiamine in the diet of humans is one of the main factors in the cause of the disease called beriberi.
In the dry beriberi, there is a loss of appetite, tingling and numbness in the legs and hands, and a dropping of the feet.
While in wet beriberi there is Edema, palpitation and breathlessness, and weakness of heart muscle leading to heart failure.
Good Sources of Thiamine
- Yeast and the outer layers of rice, wheat, and other cereals have high thiamine content.
- Unmilled cereals, pulses, and nuts are the rich source of thiamine. Removal of the outer bran layers of grains results in removal of thiamine and therefore diets largely composed of raw milled rice contain insufficient thiamine and hence may cause beriberi.
- Diets based on whole wheat, any of the millets, raw hand – pounded rice or parboiled rice (hand-pounded or machine milled) usually supply thiamine in sufficient amounts
- The deficiency of thiamine arises when highly milled raw rice is consumed as the main ingredient in the diet with practically negligible amounts of other thiamine – rich foods such as pulses.
- Thus the deficiency of thiamine in the diet affects not only the adults but may have repercussions also in the nutrition of the breast-fed infant.
- We may also lose this Vitamin by cooking our food with baking soda.
B2 Complex Vitamins
Besides thiamine, there are several members of the B group of vitamins which are referred to as “B – complex”.
They include riboflavin, nicotinic acid (niacin), pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, vitamin Biz choline, inositol, and biotin.
Some of the symptoms usually attributed to an inadequate supply of this vitamin in the diet are soreness of the tongue, cracking at the angles mouth, redness of the eyes, burning sensation in the eyes, and scaliness of the skin in the region between the nose and the angles of the lips.
Scrotal dermatitis can also be a result of riboflavin deficiency.
Good sources of Riboflavin
- Milk and milk products including skimmed milk, buttermilk, curds, cheese and whey, eggs, liver, and green leafy vegetables.
- Wheat, millets, and pulses are fair sources of riboflavin, but rice is a particularly poor source.
- The requirement of the vitamin has not been determined with any certainty: but the figure usually reported is around 1.5 mg per day, and there is good evidence that poor Indian diets, which contain little milk or meat, are often very deficient in riboflavin.
Vitamin B3 – Nicotinic acid (also called niacin)
Lack of this vitamin in the diet causes the disease called pellagra.
Dermatitis appears over the skin that is exposed to the sun such as the back of the hands and feet, and generally, it is symmetrically distributed in the body.
In India, pellagra has been observed in areas where Jowar (Sorghum ) is the main cereal consumed
Good Sources of Vitamin B3
- Whole cereals, pulses, nuts, and meat are good sources of nicotinic acid, and groundnut is particularly rich in this vitamin. Although poor in nicotinic acid content, milk is also effective in preventing pellagra because of its richness in tryptophan.
- The requirements for this vitamin is approximately 10mg per day. The requirement for an adult is about 16 mg.
Folic Acid helps in the multiplication and maturation of cells. Its deficiency of this vitamin results in certain types of anemia especially in infants and in pregnant women.
Fresh green vegetables, liver, pulses are good sources of this vitamin. The requirement of this vitamin to be about 100micro grams per day.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
This looks after the surface of the mouth, tongue, and gums. The deficiency of this vitamin adversely affects the inner lining of the stomach and intestines, thereby causing disorder indigestion.
Eggs, meat, milk, and green vegetables are the main source of this Vitamin.
This vitamin helps with the proper functioning of the central nervous system. Also for the proper utilization of food for bodybuilding purposes.
Deficiencies of this vitamin can result in anemia, pains, toughness in arms, and partial paralysis.
Good sources of Vitamin B12
Only animal foods like milk, meat, and liver appear to contain vitamin B12, and hence people subsisting mainly on vegetable foods are prone to suffer from a deficiency of vitamin B12
This vitamin prevents rickets and osteomalacia. Vitamin D plays an important role in the absorption of calcium from the intestine and in the deposition of lime salt in the bone.
Osteomalacia, manifesting itself in the first instance by pain in the bones. A good supply of vitamin D during pregnancy benefits the mother and helps in the satisfactory development of the infant.
Good sources of Vitamin D
It founds in the liver, egg yolk, milk, obtained from animals fed on green pastures and exposed to sunlight.
Fish liver oil is its richest natural source.
Common foods of vegetable origin do not contain vitamin D.
Vitamin D is formed in the skin by the action of sunlight. Hence rickets generally does not occur among children exposed to sunlight but are apt to occur in infants living in dark houses.
The cheapest way of obtaining this vitamin is by exposure of the body to sunlight.
Medicinal preparations of vitamin D costs money, while the sun is free.
About 200 to 400 International Units of vitamin D are the daily requirements of a child.
Vitamin E contains antioxidant properties and it also prevents the oxidation of carotene and Vitamin A. Deficiency of this vitamin badly affects the blood, brain, and liver.
It founds in grains and oils.
Green leafy vegetables are a good source of Vitamin K. It helps in clotting of blood on wounds and for prevention of bleeding
If we take balanced food, we get all these vitamins.